Antiochos IX

Founded 19-Nov-2006
Last update 19-Nov-2006

Genealogy References

He delighted, for example, in mimes and pantomimic actors, and generally in all showmen, and devoted himself eagerly to learning their crafts. ... He was, moreover, addicted to hunting at odd and unseasonable hours, and many a time would slip away from his friends at night, and making his way to the country with two or three servants go in pursuit of lions, panthers, or wild boars. And since in grappling with brute beasts he was reckless, he frequently put his own life in extreme peril.

Diodorus Siculus, Library of History, 34/35.34


Ruler: Antiochos IX Eusebes Philopator (“Antiochos the Pious1, the Father-loving”), nicknamed Kyzikenos (“of Kyzikos”),2 born c. 136/5 BC,3 reigned 114/3 - 95 BC, died 95 BC (executed after his defeat by Seleukos VI)4
Father: Antiochos VII Euergetes, Seleukid King, born c. 160 BC (son of Demetrios I Soter, Seleukid King, and Laodike, Seleukid Queen), reigned 138 - 129 BC, died 129 BC (slain in battle with the Parthians)
Mother: Kleopatra Thea Eueteria (usually referred simply as Kleopatra Thea), Queen of the Seleukid Empire, born in or before 164 BC (daughter of Ptolemy VI Philometor, King of Egypt, and Kleopatra II, Queen of Egypt); first married to Alexander I in 150 BC (marriage dissolved by her father), second married to Demetrios II in c. 148/7 BC (as his first wife, marriage dissolved by the capture of Demetrios II by Mithridates I in 138 BC), and third married to Antiochos VII in 138/7 BC; possibly returned to the marriage with Demetrios II in 129 BC; sole reign 126/5 BC, reign in coregency with her son Antiochos VIII 126/5 - 121/0 BC, died 121/0 BC (killed by her son Antiochos VIII)
Siblings: 5 (1) presumably another Antiochos
  (2) possibly Seleukos
  (3) presumably one or two sisters Laodike
Wifes: (1) Kleopatra IV, Queen of the Seleukid Empire, born c. 138/135 BC (daugther of Ptolemy VIII, King of Egypt, and Kleopatra III, Queen of Egypt), first married to her brother Ptolemy IX in c. 119/8 BC (marriage dissolved by their mother in c. 115 BC before Ptolemy IX became King of Egypt), second married to Antiochos IX in c. 114 BC (as his first known wife), died 112 BC (brutally killed by orders of her sister Tryphaina6, the first wife of Antiochos VIII)7
  (2) Kleopatra Selene, Queen of the Seleukid Empire, born c. 135/0 BC (daughter of Ptolemy VIII, King of Egypt, and Kleopatra III, Queen of Egypt), first married to her brother Ptolemy IX in 115 BC (as his second wife; marriage presumably dissolved by their mother in c. 107 BC), second married to her brother Ptolemy X in c. 107 BC (as his first wife; marriage presumably dissolved by their mother in c. 103 BC), third married to Antiochos VIII in c. 103/2 BC (as his second wife; terminated by his death in 97/6 BC), fourth married to Antiochos IX in 96 BC (as his second known wife; terminated by his death in 95 BC), fifth married to Antiochos X in 95 BC, died 69 BC (executed by Tigranes II the Great, King of Armenia)8
Child: Antiochos X Eusebes Philopator,9 Seleukid King, born c. 113 BC, reigned 95/4 - c. 93/1 BC, died c. 93/83 BC (probably either killed in battle with the Parthians in c. 93/1 BC or killed by Tigranes II the Great in 83 BC)


1Eusebes means pious or dutiful. This word was used for piety towards parents as well as Gods.

2 Antiochos IX was educated in Kyzikos, a city in Mysia in Asia Minor. The city was connected with the Attalids of Pergamon. It later allied itself with Rome.

Appian, Roman History, 11.68: She (Kleopatra Thea) had borne two sons to Demetrius (Demetrios II), named Seleucus (Seleukos V) and Antiochus Grypus (Antiochos VIII); and to Antiochus (Antiochos VII) one son, named Antiochus Cyzicenus (Antiochos IX). She had sent Grypus to Athens and Cyzicenus to Cyzicus to be educated.

Eusebius, Chronicle, pp. 257-258: Antiochus the fifth (Antiochos VII) had three sons and two daughters; the first two, the daughters, were both called Laodice. The third, called Antiochus, fell ill and died, like his sisters. The fourth was Seleucus, who was captured by Arsaces (Arsaces VII - Phraates II). The fifth was another Antiochus (Antiochos IX), who was brought up by Craterus the eunuch at Cyzicus, where he had fled with Craterus and the rest of the household of Antiochus, through fear of Demetrius (Demetrios II). One of the brothers had already died, along with his sister, so only Antiochus was left, the youngest of the brothers, and because of his residence at Cyzicus he was called Cyzicenus.

Porphyry, Chronika, 19: He was to Antiochos [...] and Antiochos, the younger son of this Seleukos (?), who was in Kyzikos being tutored by the eunuch Krateros out of fear of Demetrios (Demetrios II). Because of this he was called Kyzikenos.

3 The date of his birth is not certain. See Bennett, Egyptian Royal Genealogy: Cleopatra Thea, for a detailed discussion.

4 Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, 13.365-366: About this very time Antiochus (Antiochos VIII), who was called Grypus, died. His death was caused by Heracleon’s treachery, when he had lived forty-five years, and had reigned twenty-nine. His son Seleucus (Seleukos VI) succeeded him in the kingdom, and made war with Antiochus (Antiochos IX), his father’s brother, who was called Antiochus Cyzicenus, and beat him, and took him prisoner, and slew him.

Appian, Roman History, 11.69: Then Seleucus (Seleukos VI), the son of Grypus (Antiochos VIII), made war on his uncle (Antiochos IX) and took the government away from him.

5 Eusebius, Chronicle, pp. 257-258 (see footnote 2 for the citation). See also Bennett, Egyptian Royal Genealogy: Cleopatra Thea, for a detailed discussion.

6 Greek: Τρυφαινα. Bennett, Egyptian Royal Genealogy: Tryphaena, notes that she is “usually called Cleopatra Tryphaena in modern sources, although there is no ancient justification for this”.

7 Bennett, Egyptian Royal Genealogy: Cleopatra IV

8 Bennett, Egyptian Royal Genealogy: Cleopatra Selene

9 His mother was either an unknown first wife of Antiochos IX (Grainger, A Seleukid Prosopography and Gazetteer, p. 32 - Antiochos IX, p. 33 - Antiochos X; Green, Alexander to Actium, p. 735) or, perhaps more probably, Kleopatra IV (Bennett, Egyptian Royal Genealogy: Cleopatra IV). See Bennett, Egyptian Royal Genealogy: Cleopatra IV, for a detailed discussion.


Appian:Roman History, Book XI - The Syrian Wars. Translated by Horace White. Macmillan and Co., New York, 1899. (The Perseus Digital Library,;,
Bennett, Christopher J.:Egyptian Royal Genealogy. Website,
Diodorus Siculus:Library of History. Books XXXIII–XL. Translated into English by Francis R. Walton. The Loeb Classical Library, Harvard University Press, Cambridge / Massachusetts - London / England, 2001 (reprint of the 1967 edition).
Eusebius of Caesarea:Chronicle (Latin Schoene ed.). Translated into English by Andrew Smith. (Attalus,
Grainger, John D.:A Seleukid Prosopography and Gazetteer. Brill, Leiden - New York - Köln, 1997.
Green, Peter:Alexander to Actium. University of California Press, Berkeley - Los Angeles, 1990.
Josephus, Flavius:Antiquities of the Jews. Translated by William Whiston. John E. Beardsley, Auburn - Buffalo, 1895. (The Perseus Digital Library,
Porphyry of Tyre:Chronika (Greek fragments; Thesaurus Linguae Graecae). Translated into English by Oliver D. Hoover (published at Oliver D. Hoover’s website