Last update 29-Nov-2009
Identification Number ART-AE-02
|Ruler:||Najm al-Din Alpi bin Timurtash of Mardin1|
|Period:||April 1152 - June 1177 AD (547 - 572 AH2)|
|Diameter:||28 - 30 mm|
|Obverse:||Diademed male head right, ‘Najm al-Dîn’ (“Star of Religion”) in Naskh script3 engraved into the die horizontally across the neck of the figure; dotted border|
Three-line legend in a modified Ayyubid Kufic script4 continuing to right, top and left:
all within irregular circle with arabesque in exergue; dotted border
|Die axis:||c. -45º|
|References:||S/S 27; Lane-Poole, 29|
|Notes:||(1)||This type was introduced by Alpi’s father, Husam al-Din Timurtash bin Il-Ghazi. Timurtash’s coins of this type have anepigraphic obverse and their reverse legend gives his name, titles and pedigree back two generations.6 Alpi kept his father’s coins in circulation but countermarked them on the obverse with a one-line punch bearing his title Najm al-Dîn. Moreover, he also continued to issue this type, only adding his title to the obverse die and substituting a new reverse legend bearing his own name, titles and pedigree back three generations. Curiously, many Alpi’s own coins are also countermarked on their obverses even if the title Najm al-Dîn is already engraved into the obverse die (it seems that those charged with countermarking Timurtash’s coins were unable to, or chose not to, distinguish between his coins and Alpi’s similar issues). Alpi probably later extended his power into Diyarbakr, the region to the north of Mardin, because a two-line countermark Najm al-Dîn / Malik Diyârbakr (“Star of Religion, Lord of Diyarbakr”) can be also found both on his and on his father’s coins. This new additional title Malik Diyârbakr was engraved on the dies of all Alpi’s subsequent issues of other types (S/S Types 28-30). See Spengler and Sayles, Turkoman Figural Bronze Coins and Their Iconography, Vol. I - The Artuqids, pp. 76-80, and Lane-Poole, Coins of the Urtuki Turkumans (Foes of the Crusaders), p. 24.|
|(2)||My warmest thanks to Husni Bakkar for the translation of the obverse and reverse legends and for the identification of Arabic scripts. The Latin transliterations are taken from Spengler and Sayles, Turkoman Figural Bronze Coins and Their Iconography, Vol. I - The Artuqids, pp. 76, 77 and 79. All errors remain my own.|
Identification Number ART-AE-03
|Ruler:||Najm al-Din Alpi bin Timurtash of Mardin1|
|Period:||April 1152 - June 1177 AD (547 - 572 AH2), perhaps 549 AH = March 1154 - March 1155|
|Diameter:||31 - 34 mm|
Two diademed male busts in profile, facing each other, shoulders draped; a dot between the faces; legend in Naskh script3 above and below:
all within dotted border
Standing facing figures of emperor (on left), his right hand on his breast, his left hand holding orb, and of the nimbate Virgin (on right), who crowns the emperor with her right hand; legend in Naskh script3 around margin (read from inside and starting at 4:30 o’clock):
Abu al-Muzaffar Alpî bin Timurtâsh bin Îl-Ghâzî bin Artuq,
all within dotted border
|Die axis:||c. 100º|
|References:||S/S 28; Lane-Poole, 31 (Plate II, CIV)|
|Notes:||(1)||The obverse composition is copied from Roman coins. Two confronted draped male busts occur, e.g., on coins of Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus, of Caracalla and Geta, of Philip I and Philip II, of Trebonianus Gallus and Volusian, and on some series of other Roman rulers. The reverse is copied from the Byzantine type used by Romanus III, Constantine X, and others portraying the emperor being crowned by the Virgin Mary. The Islamic reproduction of this Christian motif differs from the Byzantine prototype in one small but characteristic detail: the globus in the left hand of the emperor is intentionally topped with dots instead of the Christian cross as on Byzantine coins. The coin presented above has two dots at the top of the globe, but the number of dots on other specimens varies from one to five (Spengler and Sayles, ibid, p. 83).|
|(2)||According to Spengler and Sayles, ibid, pp. 82-83, the iconography has a clear astrological meaning. The obverse represents the Gemini and the prominent dot between them is a star (the symbol of a star shows that the obverse depicts celestial beings, not ordinary mortals). Gemini is the “Day House” or domicile of the planet Mercury, while Mercury’s “Night House” is Virgo (The Virgin). So, it is likely that this coin type represents the two houses of Mercury (this astrological combination appears on still another coin series of Najm al-Din Alpi, namely on S/S Type 30, but with different imagery). Thus, the male figure being crowned by Virgo is probably intended to be an allegorical representation of Mercury in exaltation.|
|(3)||Both Spengler and Sayles, Turkoman Figural Bronze Coins and Their Iconography, Vol. I - The Artuqids, p. 82, and Lane-Poole, Coins of the Urtuki Turkumans (Foes of the Crusaders), p. 25, place this undated type early in Alpi’s reign, right after the previous S/S Types 26 and 27 (see the above specimen No. ART-AE-02), because of the simplicity of its legends and the lack of a mintname or date. Spengler and Sayles, ibid, p. 82, suggest that the date of issue was actually 549 AH, i.e. March 1154 - March 1155. This dating is based on the iconography of the Gemini on the obverse and on the testimony of Ibn al-Qalanisi, an Arab politician and chronicler, that the year 549 AH began on the first Wednesday in Muharram (18 March 1154) “with Gemini in the ascendant” (Ibn al-Qalanisi, The Damascene Chronicle of the Crusades, London, 1932).|
Identification Number ART-AE-01
|Ruler:||Nur al-Din Muhammad bin Qara Arslan of Hisn Kayfa and Amid7|
|Period:||May 1182 - April 1183 AD (578 AH2)|
|Diameter:||28 - 29 mm|
Youthful diademed head left, curly-beaded and clean shaven, within an interrupted chain circle; legend in late ornamental Kufic script8 around margin (read from inside and starting at 12 o’clock):
'Alâ'smi'llâh duriba bi'l-Hisn sanat thamân wa sab'în wa khamsami'a,
all within dotted border
Six-line legend in Ayyubid Kufic script4:
marginal legend in right and left fields:
all within dotted border
|References:||S/S 11; Lane-Poole, 14 (Plate IV, 8)|
|Notes:||(1)||Both Nur al-Din Muhammad’s grandfather, Rukn al-Dawla Da'ud, and Nur al-Din Muhammad’s great-grandfather, Mu'in al-Din Sukman, are omitted in the central reverse legend. The need to conserve space was probably the reason for this unusual omission.|
|(2)||The Latin transliteration of the obverse and reverse legends is mainly taken from Spengler and Sayles, Turkoman Figural Bronze Coins and Their Iconography, Vol. I - The Artuqids, p. 31. My warmest thanks to Husni Bakkar for his kind assistance with the transliterations and translations. All errors remain my own.|
Najm al-Din Alpi
The obverse of the S/S Type 27 represented by the specimen No. ART-AE-02 above is generally identified with the portrait on the coins of Antiochos VII.11 This identification is fairly certain, even if the portrait on Alpi’s and Timurtash’s coins is somewhat stylized; compare Figure 1 (ART-AE-02) and Figure 2 which illustrates a possible prototype (AR tetradrachm of Antiochos VII, Antioch mint).
The double portrait on the obverse of the S/S Type 28 (coin No. ART-AE-03 above) is clearly also inspired by coin portraits of Antiochos VII. As Spengler and Sayles notes in Turkoman Figural Bronze Coins and Their Iconography, Vol. I - The Artuqids, p. 82, the portrait in fact do not vary a great deal from the style of portrait on Alpi’s earlier issue S/S Type 27 (which is copied from the coinage of his father Timurtash). See Figures 3 (ART-AE-03) and 4 (other AR tetradrachm of Antiochos VII from Antioch mint).
Note that both the S/S Type 27 and 28 might, in fact, be copied not from official coins of Antiochos VII but from his posthumous Cappadocian imitations. See Houghton, Lorber and Hoover, SC II (Vol. 1, pp. 399-407), Lorber and Houghton, Cappadocian Tetradrachms in the Name of Antiochus VII, and the section Cappadocian Coins in the Name of Antiochos VII on this website.
Nur al-Din Muhammad
According to Spengler and Sayles, ibid, pp. 32-33, the male head on the S/S Type 11 (coin No. ART-AE-01 above) is without question modeled after Hellenistic portraiture, and is very reminiscent of the portraits seen on Seleukid coinage. Several authors suppose that a coin of Seleukos II was the probably prototype.12 Really, the features of the face are similar to that of some portraits of Seleukos II; see Figure 5 (ART-AE-01, retrograde obverse) and Figure 6 (AR tetradrachm of Seleukos II, uncertain mint associated with Antioch)13.
However, the British Museum relates this type to Antiochos IV or Antiochos V, and Spengler and Sayles also prefer Antiochos IV and Antiochos V. In my opinion, a silver tetradrachm of Antiochos V was a prototype for the portrait on this coin. Antiochos V’s portrait on some tetradrachms from Antioch mint is characterized by the same face appearance and hair style. Compare Figure 3 with Figures 7-9 (selected AR tetradrachms of Antiochos V from Antioch mint). The similarity is obvious and I know no other so closely similar portrait neither on coins of other Seleukid rulers nor on Cappadocian coins based on a Seleukid model.
Antiochos V was proclaimed king in 164 BC at age of nine years after his father Antiochos IV suddenly died. He reigned only about two years and the power during his reign was in the hands of his guardian Lysias. Both Antiochos V and Lysias were killed on the orders of Antiochos V’s cousin Demetrios I in 162/1 BC. It might seem strange that such unimportant king was selected for the obverse of an issue of Nur al-Din Muhammad’s coins. Moreover, because of his short reign, his coins are scarcer than coins of many of his more powerful and more famous predecessors and successors. I think that these facts do not weaken the attribution of the portrait to Antiochos V. It is quite possible that Antiochos V was mistaken for another king. However, more likely, his portrait was used because it was convenient for artistic intentions of Turkoman die-engravers who probably simply needed a model of a young man or young ruler. Perhaps it is also possible that Antiochos V’s royal epithet Eupator, i.e. “(born) of a noble father”, stated on reverse sides of his coins made him attractive as a model for coins of the Artuqid ruler.
In any case, it is necessary to consider any Seleukid connections within the cultural, historical, and political context of the Artuqid dominion. Spengler and Sayles note (ibid, p. 33):
It is often conjectured that certain coins in this series “copy” coins from antiquity, but this is a misleading term. The images were undeniably inspired by ancient coins, and probably by examples in the possession of discerning collectors at the mints or courts of rulers, but they are not truly copies. The artists serving Turkoman princes adapted venerable motifs and images to the needs of their own artistic program. In some cases we see clear evidence of historical awareness and sensitivity, especially in the use of classical images to bolster a program of legitimization. This is not to assume, however, that every image resurrected from the ancient world was recognized by Turkoman die-engravers in its original context, any more than we can assume to have interpreted the context correctly from our own vantage point. The portrait serving as model for this coin could have been seen by 12th century intellectuals as representing a specific person, perhaps Antiochos IV or V, but not necessarily so.
It is just as plausible that the Seleucid portrait was mistaken for a personification or even for some other personage. More likely, the prototype simply provided a convenient resource for the artist in a program with an increasingly astrological and political orientation. The fact that Antiochos IV was the ruler against whom the Maccabees revolted in Palestine may or may not be of significance. In any case, the precise intention of the artist remains a mystery. 14
|Figure 2:||Photo courtesy of Münzen & Medaillen GmbH – Auction 8 (May 10, 2001), Lot 202|
|Figure 4:||Photo courtesy of Freeman & Sear – Mail Bid Sale 15 (June 27, 2008), Lot 188|
|Figure 6:||Photo courtesy of Classical Numismatic Group, Inc. – eBay sale (October 4, 2000)|
|Figure 7:||Photo courtesy of Mike R. Vosper – fixed price list (February 2006)|
|Figure 8:||Photo courtesy of Münzen & Medaillen GmbH – Auction 8 (May 10, 2001), Lot 199|
|Figure 9:||Photo courtesy of Münzen & Medaillen GmbH – Auction 14 (April 16, 2004), Lot 430|
The origin of the Artuqid dynasty:
|Artuq bin Eksek, chief of a Turkish tribe (the Döger tribe of the Oghuz) and the founder of the Artuqid dynasty, entered the military service of the Great Seljuq Sultan Alp Arslan15.|
|Artuq was appointed commander-in-chief on one of the frontiers of the Seljuq empire (he won recognition in battle against the Byzantines).|
|Sultan Malik Shah16 succeeded his father Alp Arslan on the Seljuq throne and retained Artuq in his service.|
|During a campaign in upper Mesopotamia, Artuq took a bribe to allow the escape of the chief of the besieged city of Amid. Fearing of the sultan’s wrath, he joined the service of Malik Tutush, the Seljuq governor of Damascus and Malik Shah’s brother.|
|Malik Tutush captured Jerusalem and made Artuq governor in his name, because he proved his usefulness in Malik Tutush’s campaigns.|
|Death of Artuq. Two his sons, Mu'in al-Din Sukman and Najm al-Din Il-Ghazi, succeeded their father and ruled Jerusalem jointly, defending the city successfully against attacks by Crusaders.17|
|Al-Afzal bin Badr al-Jamali, a vizier of the Fatimid caliph al-Mustansir,18 added Jerusalem to the Fatimid dominions. Both brothers are forced to relinquish Jerusalem.|
The Artuqids of Hisn Kayfa and Amid:
|1095/6 - 1101/2 AD
(489 - 495 AH)
|Mu'in al-Din Sukman controlled the cities of al-Ruha (Edessa) and Saruj, which were already parts of his domain.|
|Sukman received the city of Hisn Kayfa and ten thousand dinars from the Seljuqs as a reward for his help during a siege of Mosul.|
and 1104/5 AD
(495 - 498 AH)
|The city of Mardin fell into Sukman’s hands.|
|Death of Mu'in al-Din Sukman (I).|
|1104/5 - 1108/9 AD
(498 - 502 AH)
|Reign of Ibrahim, son of Mu'in al-Din Sukman (I).|
|1108/9 AD or
|The city of Mardin passed to Mu'in al-Din Sukman’s brother Najm al-Din Il-Ghazi.|
|1108/9 - 1144/5 AD
(502 - 539 AH)
|Reign of Rukn al-Dawla Da'ud, the second son of Mu'in al-Din Sukman (I).|
|1144/5 - 1174/5 AD
(539 - 570 AH)
|Reign of Fakhr al-Din Qara Arslan, son of Rukn al-Dawla Da'ud.|
|1175/6 - 1185/6 AD
(571 - 581 AH)
|Reign of Nur al-Din Muhammad, son of Fakhr al-Din Qara Arslan.|
|The city of Amid was added to Nur al-Din Muhammad’s realm by Salah al-Din Yusuf (Saladin)19 as a reward for his assistance in the siege of Mosul.|
|1185/6 - 1200/1 AD
(581 - 597 AH)
|Reign of Qutb al-Din Sukman (II), son of Nur al-Din Muhammad.|
|1200/1 - 1222/3 AD
(597 - 619 AH)
|Reign of Nasir al-Din Mahmud, the second son of Nur al-Din Muhammad.|
|1222/3 - 1231/2 AD
(619 - 629 AH)
|Reign of Rukn al-Din Mawdud, son of Nasir al-Din Mahmud.|
|The kingdom was absorbed by al-Malik al-Kamil, the Saladin’s nephew.20Rukn al-Din Mawdud was imprisoned until the death of al-Malik al-Kamil in 1237/8 AD (635 AH) when he escaped.|
The Artuqids of Mardin:
|1095/6 - 1100/1 AD
(489 - 494 AH)
|Najm al-Din Il-Ghazi controlled some territories in al-'Irak, which he possessed.|
|Il-Ghazi was appointed Chief of Police for the Seljuqs in Baghdad.|
|1108/9 AD or
|Il-Ghazi gained control of the city of Mardin (either his nephew Ibrahim bin Sukman ceded Mardin to him or he took it by force).|
|The inhabitants of Aleppo (Halab) voluntarily handed over the city to Il-Ghazi on the death of their governor.|
|The Seljuq Sultan Mahmud21 awarded Il-Ghazi with the government of the city of Mayyafariqin in al-Jazira.|
|Death of Najm al-Din Il-Ghazi (I). His kingdom was divided among his sons Timurtash (Mardin) and Sulaiman (Mayyafariqin), and the nephew Sulaiman bin Abd al-Jabbar22 (Aleppo).|
|1122/3 - 1152/3 AD
(516 - 547 AH)
|Reign of Husam al-Din Timurtash, son of Najm al-Din Il-Ghazi (I).|
|Another Il-Ghazi’s nephew, Balak bin Bahram,23 took the city of Aleppo from Sulaiman bin Abd al-Jabbar.|
|Death of Balak bin Bahram. Timurtash received his lands including Aleppo, but soon lost this city.|
|1124/5 AD (?)24
|Death of Timurtash’s brother Sulaiman. Timurtash seized Mayyafariqin.|
|1152/3 - 1176/7 AD
(547 - 572 AH)
|Reign of Najm al-Din Alpi, son of Husam al-Din Timurtash.|
|1176/7 - 1184/5 AD
(572 - 580 AH)
|Reign of Qutb al-Din Il-Ghazi (II), son of Najm al-Din Alpi.|
|The city of Mayyafariqin was lost to Salah al-Din Yusuf (Saladin).|
|1184/5 - 1409/10 AD
(580 - 812 AH)
|About 13 next Artuqid rulers of the city of Mardin.|
The Artuqids of Khartpert:
|'Imad al-Din Abu Bakr, son of Fakhr al-Din Qara Arslan of Hisn Kayfa, assumed power in the fortress city of Khartpert25 as a sovereign ruler.|
|1185/6 - 1203/4 AD
(581 - 600 AH)
|Reign of 'Imad al-Din Abu Bakr, son of Fakhr al-Din Qara Arslan.|
|1203/4 - 1223/4 AD
(600 - 620 AH)
|Reign of Nizam al-Din Ibrahim, son of 'Imad al-Din Abu Bakr.|
|1223/4 - 1233/4 AD
(620 - 631 AH)
|Reign of Ahmad al-Khizr, son of Nizam al-Din Ibrahim.|
|Reign of Nur al-Din Artuq Shah, son of Ahmad al-Khizr.|
|Khartpert was taken over by the Seljuq Sultan Kay-Qubadh26.|
1 “Najm al-din” is the symbolic personal title (laqab in Arabic) and it means “The Star of Religion”. The word “bin” means “son of” in Arabic. The name Najm al-Din Alpi bin Timurtash can therefore be translated as “Alpi, The Star of Religion, Son of Timurtash”.
2 AH is an abbreviation for the Latin Anno Hegirae (“in the year of the Hijra”). The Hijra Era is based on the lunar calendar. The lunar years are counted from the Hijra (the flight of the Prophet Muhammad from Mecca to Medina in 622 AD). The first day of the first year of the Hijra Era corresponds with July 16, 622 AD. Note that the lunar year is about 11 days shorter than the solar year. Each month begins with the first sighting of the lunar crescent after the New Moon.
3 Naskh (also known as Naskhi) is an Islamic style of handwritten Arabic alphabet developed in the 10th century AD (the 4th century of the Hijra). It is a cursive style developed from the earliest everyday business scripts. From the 11th century AD, naskh was widely used for copying the Koran. (Encyclopadia Britannica from Encyclopadia Britannica Premium Service, “Naskhi script” and “Arabic calligraphy”, retrieved March 4, 2007)
4 Ayyubid script is the last form of Kufic script (see footnote 8) before it was transformed to Naskh script (see footnote 3). Both scripts can be also found on coins of other contemporary dynasties. (Thanks to Husni Bakkar for this information.)
5 “Abu al-Muzaffar” is called a kunya in Arabic which means the second name. This kunya can be literally translated as “Father of the Conqueror”. However, a kunya can also have a figurative meaning and the word “Abu” can also be translated as “the Man of”. There is no reason to suppose that Alpi had a son named al-Muzaffar (his successor was named Il-Ghazi) so that, in this case, the certain meaning of “Abu al-Muzaffar” is “the Man of Conquering”. (Thanks to Husni Bakkar for this information.)
6 “al-Malik al-'âlim al-'âdil Husâm al-Dîn Timurtâsh bin Îl-Ghâzî bin Artuq”, i.e. “The knowledgeable and equitable King Husam al-Din Timurtash, Son of Il-Ghazi, Son of Artuq”.
7 “Nur al-Din” is the symbolic personal title (laqab in Arabic) and it means “The Shining Light of Religion”. The word “bin” means “son of” in Arabic. The name Nur al-Din Muhammad bin Qara Arslan can therefore be translated as “Muhammad, The Shining Light of Religion, Son of Qara Arslan”.
Note that Nurettin, a modern form of Nur al-Din, is a common name in Turkey today. (Thanks to Burak Cebeci for this information.)
8 Kufic script was the earliest extant Islamic style of handwritten alphabet that was used to record the Koran. This script was also used on tombstones and coins as well as for inscriptions on buildings. The term Kufic means ‘the script of Kufah,’ an Islamic city founded in Mesopotamia in 638 AD, but the actual connection between the city and the script is not clear. There are many varieties of this script. Kufic went out of general use about the 11-12th century, although it continued to be used as a decorative element contrasting with those scripts that superseded it. (Encyclopadia Britannica from Encyclopadia Britannica Premium Service, “Kufic script” and “Arabic calligraphy”, retrieved March 4, 2006)
9 Al-Nasir li-Din Allah (“Victor for the Religion of Allah”), real name Ahmad bin al-Mustadi' Bi Allah. Abbasid Caliph, born 1158 AD (553 AH), reigned 1180 - 1225 AD (575 - 622 AH), died 1225 AD (622 AH).
The Abbasid Caliphs, 750 - 1259 AD (132 - 656 AH), assumed the Caliphate following the Umayyads. They trace their lineage to al-'Abbas, the Prophet’s uncle. During their rule the Muslim empire reached its zenith in all aspects of life. Eventually, the Abbasid Caliphate began to decline and it was destroyed by the Mongols.
10 There are two possible translations of the marginal legend. First, “Cursed be he who dishonors (this dirham)”, i.e. a warning against testing the coinage and thus casting aspersions on the issuer. Second, “Cursed be he who changes (this dirham)”, i.e. a warning against the practice of recalling old coins and replacing them with new issues for a fee. This admonition is an innovation introduced by Nur al-Din Muhammad. (Spengler and Sayles, Turkoman Figural Bronze Coins and Their Iconography. Vol. I - The Artuqids, p. 32)
11 Spengler and Sayles, Turkoman Figural Bronze Coins and Their Iconography. Vol. I - The Artuqids, p. 77; see also Lane-Poole, Coins of the Urtuki Turkumans (Foes of the Crusaders), p. 24 (description of the obverse of catalogue No. 27).
12 Lane-Poole, Coins of the Urtuki Turkumans (Foes of the Crusaders), p. 19, notes: Copied from coin of Seleukus II, but reversed; the engraver having copied the coin directly on to the die, without first reversing it.
13 Thanks to Husni Bakkar for bringing this image to my attention.
14 Quoted with the kind permission of Wayne G. Sayles.
15 Alp Arslan (“Courageous Lion”), original name 'adud al-Dawla Abu Shuja' Muhammad ibn Da'ud Chaghribeg, the second sultan of the dynasty of Seljuq Turks, born c. 1030 AD, reigned 1063 - 1072/3 AD, died 1072/3 AD. (Encyclopadia Britannica from Encyclopadia Britannica Premium Service, “Alp-Arslan”, retrieved March 4, 2006)
16 Malik-Shah, the third sultan of the dynasty of Seljuq Turks, born 1055 AD, reigned 1072 - 1092 AD, died 1092 AD. (Encyclopadia Britannica from Encyclopadia Britannica Premium Service, “Malik-Shah”, retrieved March 4, 2006)
17 Artuq had also two other sons, Abd al-Jabbar and Bahram.
18 Al-Mustansir, the eighth Fatimid caliph, born 1029 AD, reigned 1036 - 1094 AD, died 1094 AD. (Encyclopadia Britannica from Encyclopadia Britannica Premium Service, “Mustansir, al-”, retrieved March 4, 2006)
The Fatimids were a political and religious dynasty that dominated an empire in North Africa and subsequently in the Middle East from 909 AD to 1171 AD and tried unsuccessfully to oust the Abbasid caliphs as leaders of the Islamic world. It took its name from Fatimah, the daughter of the Prophet Muhammad, from whom the Fatimids claimed descent. (Encyclopadia Britannica from Encyclopadia Britannica Premium Service, “Fatimid Dynasty”, retrieved March 4, 2006)
19 Salah al-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyub (“Righteousness of the Faith, Joseph, Son of Job”; known as Saladin in the West), Muslim sultan of Egypt, Syria, Yemen, and Palestine, founder of the Ayyubid dynasty, born 1137/8 AD, died 1193 AD. The famous Muslim hero against the Crusaders, but he also achieved a great reputation in Europe as a gallant and chivalrous enemy. (Encyclopadia Britannica from Encyclopadia Britannica Premium Service, “Saladin”, retrieved March 4, 2006)
20 al-Malik al-Kamil, the Ayyubid sultan of Egypt, Palestine and Syria, born 1180 AD, reigned 1218 - 1238 AD, died 1238 AD. (Encyclopadia Britannica from Encyclopadia Britannica Premium Service, “Kamil, al-Malik al-”, retrieved March 4, 2006)
21 Mahmud II, the Seljuq Sultan of Iraq, reigned 1118 - 1131 AD (Encyclopadia Britannica from Encyclopadia Britannica Premium Service, “Iraq > History > Iraq from 1055 to 1534 > The later 'Abbasids”, retrieved March 4, 2006)
24 See Lane-Poole, Coins of the Urtuki Turkumans (Foes of the Crusaders), p. 6.
25 Modern Harput, near Elazig in Turkey. (Spengler and Sayles, Turkoman Figural Bronze Coins and Their Iconography. Vol. I - The Artuqids, p. 60)
26 The Anatolian Seljuq sultan (the Sultanate of Rum), reigned 1220 - 1237 AD. (Encyclopadia Britannica from Encyclopadia Britannica Premium Service, “Anatolia > Roman, Byzantine, and Seljuq rule > The Seljuqs of Anatolia > Seljuq expansion”, retrieved March 4, 2006)
- Al-Islam.com. Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Ministry of Islamic Affairs, Endowments, Da‘wah and Guidance, www.al-islam.com/eng.
- Encyclopadia Britannica. Encyclopadia Britannica Online, www.britannica.com.
- Houghton, Arthur; Lorber, Catharine; Hoover, Oliver:Seleucid Coins, A Comprehensive Catalogue. Part II, Volumes 1 and 2. The American Numismatic Society, New York, in association with Classical Numismatic Group, Inc., Lancaster/London, 2008. (abbr. SC II)
- Lane-Poole, Stanley:Coins of the Urtuki Turkumans (Foes of the Crusaders). The International Numismata Orientalia, Part II, London, 1875. Reprinted by Charles H. McSorley, Closter, New Jersey, undated (probably 1967).
- Lorber, Catharine C.; Houghton, Arthur:Cappadocian Tetradrachms in the Name of Antiochus VII (with an Appendix of quantitive analyses byPetr Veselý). Numismatic Chronicle 166 (2006), pp. 49-97.
- Spengler, William F.; Sayles, Wayne G.:Turkoman Figural Bronze Coins and Their Iconography. Vol. I - The Artuqids. Clio’s Cabinet, Lodi (Wisconsin), 1992. (abbr. S/S)